What is Ozone?
Ozone is actually tri-atomic layer of oxygen which is formed formed by the recombination of Oxygen atoms. Ozone is less than normal oxygen which we intake to survive. Out of almost 10 million molecules of air, 2 million are of normal oxygen, and only three are ozone.
Advantages of Ozone
Following are some of the advantages of Ozone:
How Ozone is Formed?/ Ozone Production
- Ozone is the most disinfectant and robust oxidant used for the aqueous solutions treatment and mixtures of gases.
- Ozone is not completely soluble in water, although it is appropriately soluble and firm for the oxidation and disinfection characteristics to be fully used.
- Ozone after the process of disinfection and oxidation, breaks down back into oxygen
- No doubt ozone is the most strong oxidizing agent, still it is very easy and safe to handle.
- When Ozone is in the form of gas, it becomes a reliable and effective deodorizer and bactericide.
When electrical discharge divides a molecule of oxygen into two atoms. These atoms which are highly unstable and effective combine with other molecules of oxygen to form ozone.
Natural Ozone and Ozone Purification
Ozone in our atmosphere is concentrated in the environment, from 15 to 30 kms above the Earth's surface The lowest part of earth's surface is known as troposphere which extends from downwards to about 10 kilometers (Km) above in altitude. The next layer, which is known as stratosphere, starts from 10 km to about 50 km.
History of Ozone?
Christian Schonbein is the person who discover Ozone in the 1840s. Through its odour, he noticed its presence while doing experiments on water electrolysis at the University of Basel. Because of its smell Schonbein gave it the name of Ozone as 'Ozien' is the word for 'smell'. Following are some of the marked important dates in the history of evolution of ozone:
- 1840: Schonbein discovered ozone
- 1886: In Europe, Ozone's ability to disinfect dirty water was acknowledged
- 1891: In Germany it was observed by a test result that ozone is very effective against bacteria.
- 1909: Ozone was started using as a food preservative for cold storage of meat.
- 1915: Throughout the Europe, at least 49 major ozone installations were done
- 1939: Ozone was considered for prevention of yeast & mold during the storage of eatables such as fruits and vegetables.
- 1957: In Germany Ozone was utilized for oxidation of iron and manganese.
- 1965: Scotland used ozone for controlling color of water surface and various pesticides.
- 1982: FDA GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) was declared to be present in bottles.
- 1997: In Los Angeles 600 MGD Ozonation plant were established after around 7 years of pilot testing.
Properties of Ozone
At a high standard temperature and pressure, ozone's solubility increased up to thirteen times than that of normal oxygen. Its oxidation potential which is 2.07 Volt proves that it is an effective and strong oxidizer. The concentrated mixture of oxygen and ozone that has more than 20% of ozone, can become an explosive element in fluids and gases both. Some of its properties are present in the below table:
570 mg/l bij 20 °C
Following are some of the applications and advantages of Ozone:
Aquaculture (Fish Farming)
- Removal of Fine and Colloidal Solids
- Removal of Nitrite
Bottling (Water, Juices, Beverages)
- Chemical Oxidation
- Eliminates the use of chemicals
- Requires No Storage of Dangerous Chemicals
- Destroys all types of microorganisms
- High efficiency as disinfectant
- Protects Against Diseases
- Promotes Better Growth
- Provides More Benefit
- Improves Taste and Flavour
- Iron and Manganese Removal
- Color Removal
- Taste and Odor Removal
- Removal of Disinfection By-Products
- Smoke Removal
- Odor Removal
- Mold and Mildew Removal
- Optimum temperature in Hotel Rooms
- Hot Water (Energy) Savings (70% - 90%)
- Chemical Cost Reduction (60% - 65%)
- Greatly Extend The Life of Valuable Linens
- Superior Finished Product, No Chemical Residues
- Reduced Chemical Usage
- Superior Disinfection
- Enhanced Bather Comfort
- Exceptional Water Quality
- Oxidation of Inorganic Compunds
- Color Removal
- Improved Coagulation & Turbidity Removal
- Heavy Metal Precipitation